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Mrs. S has been your patient for 20 years. She is 75 years old with well-controlled hypertension. PMH is also positive for right hip replacement 5 years ago. She retired from her job as an engineer 15 years ago. She does not smoke, she drinks 2-3 glasses of wine per night on the weekends. She has been living by herself since her husband’s death 2 years ago and is very active in the community and with her family. She drives almost every day. She is accompanied by her son and daughter today who are concerned because they’ve noticed that she has become more forgetful over the past several months. Your assessment can include more than one possibility for this vague symptom.
1. Using the information given, name and describe the functional considerations
2. Describe a management plan that incorporates #1 above. This must include both
treatment and prevention.
Expert Solution Preview
Introduction: In analyzing the case study of Mrs. S, a 75-year-old patient with controlled hypertension and recent cognitive decline, it is important to consider the functional considerations and formulate a comprehensive management plan that includes both treatment and prevention strategies.
1. Functional Considerations: Based on the information provided, there are several functional considerations to be addressed:
a) Cognitive Decline: Mrs. S’s recent cognitive decline, characterized by increased forgetfulness, requires evaluation to identify potential causes such as cognitive impairment, dementia, or mental health issues.
b) Independence: Mrs. S has been living alone since her husband’s death and remains active in the community. Preserving her independence and ability to carry out daily activities is essential for her overall well-being.
c) Mobility: Mrs. S’s previous right hip replacement highlights the importance of maintaining her mobility and preventing any further limitations that may hinder her independence and quality of life.
d) Social Engagement: Mrs. S’s involvement in the community and strong family ties contribute to her overall health and should be considered when devising a management plan.
2. Management Plan: To effectively address the functional considerations identified above, a comprehensive management plan can be implemented.
a) Cognitive Decline:
– Evaluation: Conduct a thorough medical assessment, including cognitive screening tests and imaging studies if necessary, to identify and diagnose the cause of cognitive decline.
– Treatment: Depending on the underlying cause, appropriate interventions such as medication management, cognitive rehabilitation, and supportive therapy can be initiated to slow down the progression of cognitive decline.
– Prevention: Promote brain health through lifestyle modifications, including regular exercise, a balanced diet, mental stimulation, and social engagement.
– Home Assessments: Conduct home assessments to identify and address any potential safety hazards or barriers that may hinder Mrs. S’s independence. This may involve modifications such as installing handrails, improving lighting, and ensuring proper medication management.
– Assistive Devices: Consider the use of assistive devices, such as walking aids or adaptive equipment, to enhance Mrs. S’s independence and mobility.
– Support Services: Connect Mrs. S with community resources, such as home healthcare services or support groups, to provide assistance and support as needed.
– Physical Therapy: Recommend regular physical therapy sessions to improve strength, balance, and mobility, ensuring the longevity of Mrs. S’s hip replacement and overall function.
– Fall Prevention: Educate Mrs. S and her family about fall prevention strategies, including maintaining a clutter-free environment, using proper footwear, and practicing safe mobility techniques.
d) Social Engagement:
– Support Systems: Emphasize the importance of maintaining social connections and encourage Mrs. S to continue participating in community activities and spending time with her family members.
– Cognitive Stimulation: Suggest engagement in activities that provide cognitive stimulation, such as puzzles, reading, or attending educational programs, to support cognitive health.
By considering these functional considerations and implementing the proposed management plan, it is possible to address Mrs. S’s cognitive decline while supporting her independence, mobility, and social engagement. Regular evaluation and modification of the plan as needed will contribute to Mrs. S’s overall well-being and quality of life.