- Watch the assigned videos from chapter 40. To access the videos, click on the videos tab that is located under the Course Tools module and then click on the EVOLVE-Elsevier Medical Assisting Procedures Video or Evolve Medical Assisting Videos.
- View Measure the Peak Flow Rate in Chapter 40: Pulmonology
- View Administer a Nebulizer Treatment in Chapter 40: Pulmonology
- View Perform Spirometry Testing in Chapter 40: Pulmonology
- Read the scenario.
- Type in the answer to the questions using the text function.
Renee is rooming Carl Bowden. He is here today for a recheck appointment. He was diagnosed 10 days ago with pneumonia. As Renee is gathering Carl’s history, he tells her that he has smoked two packs a day for the past 30 years. He also states that he has had pneumonia six times over the past 2 years. He asks Renee how smoking may impact his spirometry test ordered by the physician. Thinking back to the respiratory structures and functions and spirometry testing you have learned about in this module, how would you answer his question?
Expert Solution Preview
Spirometry is a common diagnostic test used to assess lung function and diagnose respiratory conditions. In this scenario, Carl Bowden, a patient with a history of smoking and frequent bouts of pneumonia, is curious about how smoking might impact his spirometry test results. In order to provide an accurate answer, we need to consider the effects of smoking on the respiratory system and how it can influence spirometry measurements.
Smoking can have a significant impact on spirometry test results. One of the primary effects of smoking is the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which includes conditions such as chronic bronchitis and emphysema. These conditions can lead to airflow limitation and reduced lung function.
The toxins present in cigarette smoke can cause inflammation and damage to the airways and lung tissue. This can result in narrowing of the bronchioles, increased mucus production, and the destruction of lung parenchyma. As a result, the airways become obstructed, making it harder for air to flow in and out of the lungs.
When performing spirometry, several parameters are measured, including forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), and the ratio of FEV1 to FVC. These measurements are used to assess lung function and help in the diagnosis of respiratory disorders. In individuals who smoke, spirometry results may show decreased FEV1 and FVC values compared to non-smokers.
The decreased lung function observed in smokers can be attributed to both the chronic inflammation caused by smoking and the development of conditions like COPD. The presence of airflow obstruction, as indicated by reduced FEV1 and FVC values, is a common finding in smokers.
Furthermore, smoking can also lead to bronchial hyperresponsiveness, which means that the airways become more sensitive to various stimuli such as allergens or irritants. This increased sensitivity can cause further airflow limitation and may also be reflected in the spirometry test results.
In summary, smoking can significantly impact spirometry test results by causing airflow limitation, reduced lung function, and increased bronchial hyperresponsiveness. It is important for individuals like Carl Bowden, who have a history of smoking and respiratory issues, to understand the potential effects of smoking on their spirometry results. Additionally, smoking cessation is highly recommended to prevent further damage to the respiratory system and improve lung function.