his work should have  Introduction and  Conclusion



Huether, S. E., & McCance, K. L. (2017). Understanding pathophysiology (6th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Mosby.

  • Chapter 26, “Structure and      Function of the Pulmonary System”

This chapter provides information relating to the structure and function of the pulmonary system to illustrate normal pulmonary function. It focuses on gas transport to build the foundation for examining alterations of pulmonary function.

  • Chapter 27, “Alterations of      Pulmonary Function”

This chapter examines clinical manifestations of pulmonary alterations and disorders of the chest wall and pleura. It covers the pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, evaluation, and treatment of obstructive lung diseases such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), chronic bronchitis, and emphysema.

  • Chapter 28, “Alterations of      Pulmonary Function in Children”

This chapter focuses on alterations of pulmonary function that affect children. These alterations include disorders of the upper and lower airways.

Hammer, G. G. , & McPhee, S. (2014). Pathophysiology of disease: An introduction to clinical medicine. (7th ed.) New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Education.

  • Chapter 9, “Pulmonary      Disease”

This chapter begins with an overview of normal structure and function of the lungs to provide a foundation for examining various lung diseases such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

** American Lung Association. (2012). Retrieved from http://www.lung.org/ 

** Asthma and Allergy Foundation of America. (2012). Retrieved from http://www.aafa.org 

** Cystic Fibrosis Foundation. (2012). Retrieved from http://www.cff.org/ 

Instructor Requirements

As advanced practice nurses, we are scholars, nurse researchers and scientists. As such, please use Peer-Reviewed scholarly articles and websites designed for health professionals (not designed for patients) for your references. Students should be using the original citation in Up

to Date and go to that literature as a reference. The following are examples (not all inclusive) of resources/websites deemed inadmissible for scholarly reference:

1. Up to Date (must use original articles from Up to Date as a resource)

2. Wikipedia

3. Cdc.gov- non healthcare professionals section

4. Webmd.com

5. Mayoclinic.com

– This work should have  Introduction and  Conclusion

– It should have at least 3 current references

– APA format

This paper should have Introduction and Conclusion

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