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Instructions: · Include at least one peer-reviewed article into each reply post and provide APA in-text citations and references for all


· Include at least one peer-reviewed article into each reply post and provide APA in-text citations and references for all of your sources

· Each reply post is expected to be at least 150 words

· Integrate at least one peer-reviewed journal article from the last five years into your post to support your response

Peer 1: Tala

When considering this instance through the lens of Albert Bandura’s social learning theory, with a particular emphasis on modeling. Bandura claimed that people learn by seeing and imitating others’ behaviors, attitudes, and emotional reactions. In this example, Mr. Bandinner’s upbringing on the reservation, which was marked by his father’s furious and abusive behavior, most likely acted as a substantial influence on his own behavior. Growing up in such an atmosphere, Mr. Bandinner would have learned that anger and violence are appropriate coping mechanisms for stress and conflict. Given the nature of combat settings, Mr. Bandinner would have been exposed to additional modeling of violent behavior while serving in the United States Army and throughout the Vietnam War period. He most certainly seen and engaged in acts of violence, which could have reinforced his previously learned aggressive inclinations. Furthermore, the trauma and stress he encountered during combat may have increased his emotional reactivity and aggressiveness(Bandura, 2021).

Mr. Bandinner’s future difficulties with substance misuse and aggressiveness can also be explained using Bandura’s modeling theory. His use of alcohol and other substances as coping methods may have been learnt through peer observation or as a means of escaping or suppressing uncomfortable feelings, a pattern he most certainly observed growing up and while serving in the military. Furthermore, Mr. Bandinner’s difficulties in controlling his anger and establishing healthy connections with his family members might be ascribed to his acquired patterns of conduct and emotional responses. His avoidance of crowded occasions in the absence of alcohol indicates a taught link between alcohol consumption and coping with anxiety or social discomfort(Bandura, 2021).

In terms of treatment, Bandura’s theory suggests that therapies centered on modeling and observational learning may be beneficial to Mr. Bandinner. This could involve cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) strategies that identify and challenge maladaptive thought patterns and behaviors, as well as positive models for dealing with stress and conflict. Furthermore, therapies aimed at improving emotion regulation skills and fostering healthy relationships could assist Mr. Bandinner in developing more adaptive methods of managing his emotions and engaging with others(Dobson & Dobson, 2009). Given Mr. Bandinner’s Native American heritage, it is critical to address cultural issues in treatment. This could entail using culturally sensitive treatments, such as traditional healing practices, or integrating family and community members in the therapeutic process. Assessments should also take into account cultural elements that may influence Mr. Bandinner’s experiences and views of trauma, violence, and substance use.

Overall, by examining Mr. Bandinner’s behaviors and presenting difficulties through the lens of Bandura’s modeling theory, clinicians can develop interventions that target learned patterns of behavior and promote positive change while also taking into account his cultural background and unique experiences.


Bandura, A. (2021, May 9).
Psychological Modeling. Routledge.

Links to an external site.

Dobson, D., & Dobson, K. S. (2009, January 16).
Evidence-Based Practice of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy. Guilford Press.

Peer 2: Kristina Reyes

Applying B.F. Skinner’s Reinforcement Theory

Shaping of Behavior in Early Life

Mr. Bandinner’s physical maltreatment and rigorous disciplinary tactics, which were used as punishments for various transgressions, are probably what created his violent tendencies and difficulty controlling his rage. Possibly he was encouraged to act aggressively to escape punishment or take control of his surroundings.

Reinforcement during Military Service

Mr. Bandinner experienced terrible incidents and casualties during his Vietnam War service, which served as aversive stimuli. He most likely used substance addiction and violent conduct as coping mechanisms for the stress and trauma he endured. It is also possible to interpret his rigorous work schedule at the post office as an avoidance strategy that helped him get away from the upsetting recollections of his time in the military.

Maintaining Factors in the Present

The reinforcement that comes from Mr. Bandinner’s present problems managing his anger, relationships, and nightmares might be sustaining. The fact that he was able to take charge of events or avert imagined dangers may have encouraged his violent outbursts. The momentary solace he feels from avoiding having to face his painful memories might be the reason behind his nightmares and fear of busy places.

Treatment Implications

Changing the reinforcement and punishment contingencies that Mr. Bandinner’s troublesome behaviors depend on might be the major goal of his treatment. This may entail:


Exposure Therapy:
Bandinner may benefit from progressively exposing himself to circumstances that make him anxious or uncomfortable while practicing adaptive coping mechanisms. This will help him learn more useful reactions to stimuli connected to trauma.


Reinforcement of Adaptive Behaviors
: Over time, Mr. Bandinner’s attempts to work on relationships, address his traumatic experiences, and use healthy coping methods might be strengthened and eventually lead to more positive behaviors (Leeder, 2022).

The cultural background of Mr. Bandinner and any potential prejudices or misinterpretations that could occur during therapy must be taken into account. The intervention’s efficacy may be increased by using culturally aware procedures and getting feedback from Native American groups or experts.


Leeder, T. M. (2022). Behaviorism, skinner, and operant conditioning: considerations for sports coaching practice.
35(3), 27-32.

Mastroianni, G. R. (2022). History and Development of Military Psychology. In Handbook of Military Sciences (pp. 1-16). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

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