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Module 4: Lecture Content: Oral Communicationi.  Oral Communication: 1. 1. Definition: Oral

Module 4: Lecture Content: Oral Communication

i. 
Oral Communication:

1.

1.
Definition: Oral Communication is the verbal form of conveying a message or idea. Conversations with friends, family, or colleagues, presentations and speeches, are different oral communication practices that build trust and reliability. Verbal communication is an effective medium of relying on when getting the point across, avoiding misunderstandings, and minimizing confusion. It is essential for important or sensitive conversations, negotiations, and conflict resolutions. (Harappa, 2020)

2.
Characteristics of Verbal Communication: Verbal actions in nature, such as talking, laughing, or listening, often navigate different emotional situations through the oral form. Several characteristics are specific to verbal communication. (Harappa, 2020)

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· The message being communicated is related directly or indirectly to an object.

· The use of concepts to communicate messages

· Content should be understood by both the sender and the receiver

·.

3.
Types of Verbal Communication: Verbal Communication can be classified into the following four types based on your audience or purpose: (Harappa, 2020)

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Intrapersonal Communication: This is your private verbal communication channel. Speak out loud; listen to yourself. This will ignite confidence and clarity of thought. The mind will construct effective ways to form sentences and find suitable words to connect with other people with practice. (Harappa, 2020)

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Interpersonal Communication: One-on-one verbal communication. This usually happens between two individuals. Verbal interactions are not just about talking and it is also about listening. Verbal feedback is proof that you are getting your points across clearly. Reactions, verbal and nonverbal, will define a continuous conversation. (Harappa, 2020)

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Small-Group Communication: Here, the number of people increases on a small scale. You go from a single interaction to communicating with a few more participants. Be aware of the topic discussed stay on track. Allow enough time for everyone to present their thoughts. (Harappa, 2020)

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Public Communication: Here, an individual addresses many people at once. Structure your thoughts previously. With a large audience, make sure to use words and phrases as broad as possible to be understood easily by a mixed group of people. (Harappa, 2020)

The following elements for verbal communication broaden the possibilities of the spoken word (Harappa, 2020)

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Tone: The tone used in a verbal expression determines the receiver’s interpretation. Sarcasm is an example of how a nice message can be conveyed and processed differently. If an intense topic is not verbalized with the correspondent energy, the core of an idea might never thrive. (Harappa, 2020)

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Speed: The pace of your speaking determines the reaction of your audience. Quickness in speaking might interfere with pronunciation, making a message too difficult to understand. On the other hand, a person speaking slowly and softly can cause an interaction intensely dull. (Harappa, 2020)

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Volume: The volume at which you talk can carry various meanings. Volume ranges from a whisper to a scream. Monitor your speech volume depending on the social context you’re in. A whisper into someone’s ear in front of multiple people can be disrespectful. On the other hand, screaming can be a rude move while somebody else is talking. For effective verbal communication, find the balance between these two and apply it based on environment and context. (Harappa, 2020) 

1.

4.
Advantages of Verbal Communication: Strong verbal communication skills establish long-lasting and trustworthy relationships with others. Benefits go as follows: (Harappa, 2020)

· Room to clarify misunderstood messages for a complete comprehension of an idea

· Time-efficient is one of the fastest modes of communication

· Space for feedback allows people to engage in conversation at the same time

· It ignites influence and persuasion, so listeners agree with ideas, thoughts, and opinions

· It has flexibility, language, and tone can change depending on the situation or the relationship shared with an individual (Harappa, 2020)

Effective verbal communication opens a two-way street that allows individuals to interact with each other over social levels, beliefs, and cultural roots. (Harappa, 2020)

ii. 
Perceptual 
and Cultural Differences:

1.

1.
Introduction: Oral communication is essentially a language. A verbal language is a tool that aids expression through sounds, spoken words, and gestures. Before written words were invented, the language mainly used the auditory means of transmission through grunts, whistles, or drumbeats. Language is dynamic because it can change with time and acquire new words and elements at any given chance. The use of language is culture-related. Linguistic markers can influence the perception of people, according to communication scholars. Speech features are linguistic markers that can indicate a person’s social identity. (Day Translations, 2018)

2.
Perception: Every person sees the world in their way. Our perceptions are based on preferences, personal experiences, education, current attitude, and general upbringing. These factors impact how we understand the people, events, and information around us. A person that filters things through these lenses must consider external factors. If not, they may interpret messages and communications in a distorted way. For example, if somebody is mad because of the traffic encountered while driving, a coworker’s speech or actions may feel hostile when they are not. (Ruhlow, 2021)

3.
Context: The context of a conversation implicates the circumstances associated with a statement or string of ideas that set the stage for a message to be understood. If two statements are spoken with a different context, they can have opposite meanings. Verbal, face to face or long-distance communication provides more aligned perceptions and context to be established, so everyone is on the same page. Perception is, for the speaker, as important as for the listener. The speaker has to consider their perceptions to find the best way to convey information. (Mandelbaum, 2019)

4.
Foreign accents: Even if communicating in the same language, when someone conveys a message in a foreign accent, you might misunderstand the nature of the idea. For example, Puerto Rico has many companies with CEOs from Spain and other parts of Europe. Even though bosses and employees speak the same language, a different accent and cultural context will make spoken communication a reasonably difficult task. (Hosbeg, n.d.)

5.
Other aspects that affect verbal communication: Other aspects that can affect verbal communication are noise and information overload. When a verbal conversation occurs in a loud and noisy environment, the message will have interference that can cause incomplete ideas that don’t reach or complete thoughts interpreted the wrong way. Also, when too much information is being delivered, the recipient might feel overwhelmed by the information overload. It is not that the recipient is not capable of understanding, but that the amount of information entering is way more than what the brain is accustomed to processing. (Hosbeg, n.d.)

iii. 
Verbal 
and Nonverbal Communication:

1.

1.
Introduction: Nonverbal communication is a characteristic in oral interactions that are susceptible to change. As contradictory as the term may sound, nonverbal communication encompasses a host of cues that carry a physical representation of emotional states that complement verbal messages. For a communicator, these reactions may be conscious or subconscious and involve many different body parts. Corporal movement, posture, and facial expressions can influence how verbal communication is understood. (Masterclass, 2021)

2.
Differences Between Verbal and Nonverbal Communication: While nonverbal communication only acts with the body, verbal communication relies on words. Proper interaction is often a composition that mixes verbal and nonverbal signals. Knowing the differences between the following forms is crucial to transmitting an idea successfully: (Masterclass, 2021)

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Delivery: This form of verbal communication can be addressed through multiple mediums. Delivery can be perceived over the phone, an email, a letter, or a face-to-face conversation. (Masterclass, 2021)

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Intentionality: A contrast between verbal and nonverbal is that the words are chosen intentionally, while nonverbal expressions tend to be unintentional. An example might be a person that is sweating while talking. This may convey nervousness. (Masterclass, 2021)

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Grammar: With the intent of fluency, verbal speech follows patterns and rules of grammar, whereas nonverbal communication is spontaneous and fluent. (Masterclass, 2021)

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Authenticity: Body movements, mannerisms, or physiological responses influence the authenticity of the spoken word. It may sometimes define the principal meaning of a message, even more than verbal expressions. The human body can deliver messages subconsciously. “Actions speak louder than words.” (Masterclass, 2021)

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Emotions: Nonverbal cues are uniquely powerful when interacting with children. It may be difficult for young kids to understand how an adult selects and combines words, but a parent’s facial expression and tone are unmistakably clear. This is also beneficial when there is a language barrier in an interaction. (Masterclass, 2021)

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Engagement: Nonverbal signals demonstrate attentiveness and engagement to those around you. A controlled posture and balanced eye contact will ensure your interest in others. This will prompt the speaker to say and do more about their ideas. (Masterclass, 2021)

 

iv.
 Communication Barriers:

1.

1.
Different Barriers that Affect Communication: If any disturbance intercepts the communication steps, the message might be lost entirely. Several barriers interfere with a chain of communication. Senders and receivers alike must locate the following barriers at taking steps to get over them. (Juneja, 2015)

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Inattention: Sometimes, people don’t listen. This might be due to repetitive messages. For example, a traveler may pay attention to a “No Parking” sign in front of a store, but the brain gets accustomed to it if the same sign is put all over the city. Thus, repetitive messages are to avoid for an effective communication process. (Juneja, 2015)

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Time pressures: In spaces like television, radio, or another kind of broadcast medium, messages must be presented within a limited time. This might have adverse consequences. The information must be as brief as possible to be transferred in less time possible. If the message is not articulated correctly, the main idea might be lost. (Juneja, 2015)

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Emotions: The emotional state of a communicator can also affect the outcome of an interaction. If a receiver perceives an angry tone when speaking, the interpretation of the information can turn bad. On the other hand, happy and jovial communication can spark the receiver’s interest and can be easily interpreted. (Juneja, 2015)

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Complexity: If an idea is over-described or with terms comprehended by a selected group of people, complexity can be a challenge for transmitting an idea verbally. Inside the company’s hierarchy, for example, the difference between the levels of work and responsibilities can be so far apart that it may not be understood by everyone the same way. (Juneja, 2015)

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Poor retention: Human memory cannot function beyond a limit. It isn’t easy to retain what is being told, mainly if the way the information is presented does not produce interest or attention. (Juneja, 2015)


 References

:

Harappa (2020).
 The Importance of Oral Communication. Retrieved from:
 

to an external site.

 Harappa (2020)
. What is Verbal Communication? Retrieved from: 

to an external site.

 Hosbeg (n.d.). 
Barriers to Communication. Retrieved from: 

to an external site.

 Juneja, Prachi (2015). 
Communication Barriers: Reason for Communication Breakdown. Retrieved from:
 

to an external site.

 Kapur, Radhika (2020). 
The Process of Communication. Retrieved from:
 

to an external site.

 Madelbaum, Aaron (2019).
 How Perception Influences Interpersonal Communication. Retrieved from: 

to an external site.

 Masterclass (2021).
 Verbal vs. Nonverbal Communication Explained. Retrieved from:
 

to an external site.

 Ruhlow, Tina (2021)
. What Are Perceptual Barriers to Effective Communication? Retrieved from:
 

to an external site.

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