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Please write 1-2 paragraphs on the discussion question below, include apa references. And respond to discussion responses in 1 paragraph. With the responses,

Please write 1-2 paragraphs on the discussion question below, include apa references. And respond to discussion responses in 1 paragraph. With the responses, do not just state how well the response is. You should provide additional info.

· What is confidentiality? How is confidentiality impacted by HIPAA?

· Describe at least one incident when confidential information within an informatics system was improperly disclosed. If you have not had this experience, describe at least one opportunity for potential improper disclosure of confidential information within an informatics system.

·; in a healthcare environment, it is the ethical principle or legal obligation that a healthcare professional will not disclose information relating to a patient unless the patient gives consent permitting the disclosure (Hebda & Czar, 2023). Information shared by patients during the care are privileged information and is protected by several laws and regulations. Unauthorized release of information and its use is punishable by laws. One of those laws is Health Information Portability and Affordability Act (HIPAA) which require that clients be given clearly written explanations of how facilities and providers may use and disclose their health information (Hebda & Czar, 2023).

As nurses, we have access to confidential information within an informatics and must deal with situations pertaining to appropriate disclosure of the information. We deal with family members/friends calling to check on patients’ recovery and treatment plans. I have been following the appropriate protocols pertaining to disclosure of confidential health information, but this could lead to situations leading to unauthorized disclosure. Our organization’s strict policy of ensuring proper verification system before releasing information has prevented me from improper disclosure.

Confidentiality can be attained through data encryption and controlling access to systems using passwords (Basil et al., 2022). Providing appropriate trainings to employees on internet etiquette, appropriate disclosure protocols as well as about potential consequences of improper disclosure of confidential information are some ways to further protect information in a clinical setting.


 Basil, N. N., Ambe, S., Ekhator, C., & Fonkem, E. (2022). Health Records Database and Inherent Security Concerns: A Review of the literature. 

to an external site.

 Hebda, T.L., & Czar, P. (2023). Handbook of Informatics for Nurses & Healthcare Professionals (5th ed.). New York: Pearson. ISBN: 978-0-13-771101-0

Discussion response #2

Confidentiality refers to the protection of sensitive information from being disclosed to unauthorized individuals. In the context of healthcare, confidentiality is crucial to maintain patient privacy and trust. HIPAA (Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act) impacts confidentiality by setting detailed rules through its Privacy Rule, which governs the privacy, access, and disclosure of individually identifiable health information, known as protected health information (PHI) (Hackert & Tariq, 2023). HIPAA’s Privacy Rule establishes regulations that ensure individuals have control over their health information. It mandates that healthcare professionals must take reasonable steps to keep personal medical information confidential. Patients have the right to access their medical records, request corrections, and limit disclosures of their information.

One incident where confidential information within an informatics system was with poor organization which lead to the disclosure of sensitive patient information to unauthorized individuals. A patient came into the ER and was having relatively moderate constipation. The way that the nursing station was set up previously was to sit charts at this stand right by the door. With the area being surrounded by windows, it created the ability for people to be able to see who was in there as they walked by. However, it also allowed people to see the charts. The patient’s family member walked by the nurse’s station, stood where the charts were, and accidentally read their family members chart that disclosed that they were HIV positive. The family member immediately left them and disclosed this to several other family members who were unaware of this information beforehand.

To further protect patient information in clinical practice, additional security measures can be implemented such as implementing physical security controls. Establish physical security controls such as facility access restrictions and workstation use policies to complement digital security measures. Limit access to areas where patient information is stored and ensure only authorized users can access PHI (Hackert & Tariq, 2023). By implementing these additional security measures, healthcare organizations can enhance the protection of patient information, comply with regulations like HIPAA, and reduce the risk of unauthorized disclosure or breaches of confidential data (Hackert & Tariq, 2023).


Hackert, P., & Tariq, R. (2023). Patient Confidentiality. 
National Library of Medicine. 

Please respond to the discussion question below in 1-2 paragraphs. Please included apa references

Discussion #1

· Explain at least two federal laws (health care policies) that have implications for health care informatics. Specifically, what are their implications for health care informatics?

· What role do nurses play in health care policy that pertains to informatics?

Discussion #2

· Describe at least two ways data from health care informatics systems can be saved for retrieval following a disaster.

· Describe at least one financial and one nonfinancial cost associated with a disaster that affects health care informatics systems.

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