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### Population Relative Attributable Risk

a.  Based on the tables, as of 1991, how many people are never-smokers, how many are former smokers (any habit), how many are current smokers (any habit), and what percentage of the sample does each of these groups represent?  3 points
Never-Smokers: 305 = 22.68% Former Smokers: 384 = 28.55% Current Smokers: 656 = 48.77% [Total: 305+384+656 = 1,345 (100%)]
b. Calculate and interpret the absolute attributable risk of bladder cancer among the current (1991) cigarette smokers (any amount) compared to never-smokers.  5 points
Absolute Attributable Risk = Incidence in Exposed – Incidence in Unexposed = 656-305 = 351
c.  Calculate and interpret the relative attributable risk of bladder cancer among the current (1991) cigarette smokers (any amount) compared to never-smokers.  5 points    Relative Attributable Risk =
d.  Calculate and interpret the population relative attributable risk of bladder cancer associated with current or former cigarette smoking (any amount), compared to never smoking. Assume that the proportion of never-smokers, former smokers, and current smokers in the sample (from part a.) is the same as their distribution in the population. Treat smokers as if they were all cigarette smokers (i.e. pretend there is no “other”). 12 points
Population Relative Attributable Risk =   Question 2 (25 points total) The following data come from an observational study regarding the association between Vitamin A intake and childhood eye problems (xerophthalmia, keratomalacia, and blindness). Children are sorted here into two groups: those who receive the recommended daily intake of Vitamin A (15000 IU) and those whose intake meets the criteria for severe deficiency (75 IU).  a.  Complete the standard life tables for each group, assuming censoring happens uniformly throughout each interval.  12 points