|Nonsmokers n = 742||Smokers n = 57*|
|No alcohol use||551||14|
*Smokers defined as “smoking at least 1 cigarette daily during the past month.”
†Alcohol use “defined as at least 1 alcoholic beverage per month during the past year.”
An, F. R., Xiang, Y. T., Yu., L., Ding, Y. M., Ungvari, G. S., Chan, S. W. C., et al. (2014). Prevalence of nurses’ smoking habits in psychiatric and general hospitals in China. Archives of Psychiatric Nursing, 28(2), 120.
If more than two groups are being examined, χ2 does not determine where the differences lie; it only determines that a statistically significant difference exists. A post hoc analysis will determine the location of the difference. χ2 is one of the weaker statistical tests used, and results are usually only reported if statistically significant values are found. The step-by-step process for calculating the Pearson chi-square test is presented in Exercise 35.
Darling-Fisher, C. S., Salerno, J., Dahlem, C. H. Y., & Martyn, K. K. (2014). The Rapid Assessment for Adolescent Preventive Services (RAAPS): Providers’ assessment of its usefulness in their clinical practice settings. Journal of Pediatric Health Care, 28(3), 217–226.
Darling-Fisher and colleagues (2014, p. 219) conducted a mixed-methods descriptive study to evaluate the clinical usefulness of the Rapid Assessment for Adolescent Preventative Services (RAAPS) screening tool “by surveying healthcare providers from a wide variety of clinical settings and geographic locations.” The study participants were recruited from the RAAPS website to complete an online survey. The RAAPS risk-screening tool “was developed to identify the risk behaviors contributing most to adolescent morbidity, mortality, and social problems, and to provide a more streamlined assessment to help providers address key adolescent risk behaviors in a time-efficient and user-friendly format” (Darling-Fisher et al., 2014, p. 218). The RAAPS is an established 21-item questionnaire with evidence of reliability and validity that can be completed by adolescents in 5–7 minutes.
“Quantitative and qualitative analyses indicated the RAAPS facilitated identification of risk behaviors and risk discussions and provided efficient and consistent assessments; 86% of providers believed that the RAAPS positively influenced their practice” (Darling-Fisher et al., 2014, p. 217). The researchers concluded the use of RAAPS by healthcare providers could improve the assessment and identification of adolescents at risk and lead to the delivery of more effective adolescent preventive services.