### Study Questions

1. What is the sample size for the Darling-Fisher et al. (2014) study? How many study participants (percentage) are RAAPS users and how many are RAAPS nonusers?

2. What is the chi-square (χ^{2}) value and degrees of freedom (df) for provider type?

3. What is the p value for provider type? Is the χ^{2} value for provider type statistically significant? Provide a rationale for your answer.

4. Does a statistically significant χ^{2} value provide evidence of causation between the variables? Provide a rationale for your answer.

5. What is the χ^{2} value for race? Is the χ^{2} value statistically significant? Provide a rationale for your answer.

6. Is there a statistically significant difference between RAAPS users and RAAPS nonusers with regard to percentage adolescent patients? In your own opinion is this an expected finding? Document your answer.

7. What is the df for U.S. practice region? Complete the df formula for U.S. practice region to visualize how Darling-Fisher et al. (2014) determined the appropriate df for that region.

8. State the null hypothesis for the years in practice variable for RAAPS users and RAAPS nonusers.

9. Should the null hypothesis for years in practice developed for Question 8 be accepted or rejected? Provide a rationale for your answer.

10. How many null hypotheses were accepted by Darling-Fisher et al. (2014) in Table 2? Provide a rationale for your answer.

### Answers to Study Questions

1. The sample size is N = 201 with n = 111 (55%) RAAPS users and n = 90 (45%) RAAPS nonusers as indicated in the narrative results.

2. The χ^{2} = 12.7652 and df = 2 for provider type as presented in Table 2.

3. The p = < .00 for the provider type. Yes, the χ^{2} = 12.7652 for provider type is statistically significant as indicated by the p value presented in Table 2. The specific χ^{2} value obtained could be compared against the critical value in a χ^{2} table (see Appendix D Critical Values of the χ^{2} Distribution at the back of this text) to determine the significance for the specific degrees of freedom (df), but readers of research reports usually rely on the p value provided by the researcher(s) to determine significance. Most nurse researchers set the level of significance or alpha (α) = 0.05. Since the p value is less than alpha, the result is statistically significant. You need to note that p values never equal zero as they appear in this study. The p values would not be zero if carried out more decimal places.

4. No, a statistically significant χ^{2} value does not provide evidence of causation. A statistically significant χ^{2} value indicates a significant difference between groups exists but does not provide a causal link (Grove et al., 2013; Plichta & Kelvin, 2013).

5. The χ^{2} = 1.2865 for race. Since p = .53 for race, the χ^{2} value is not statistically significant. The level of significance is set at α = 0.05 and the p value is larger than alpha, so the result is nonsignificant.

6. Yes, there is a statistically significant difference between RAAPS users and RAAPS nonusers with regard to percent of adolescent patients. The chi-square value = 7.3780 with a p = .01.You might expect that nurses caring for more adolescents might have higher RAAPS use as indicated in Table 2. However, nurses need to be knowledgeable of assessment and care needs of populations and subpopulations in their practice even if not frequently encountered. Two valuable sources for adolescent care include the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Adolescent and School Health at http://www.cdc.gov/HealthyYouth/idex.htm and the World Health Organization (WHO) adolescent health at http://www.who.int/topics/adolescent_health/en/.

7. The df = 3 for U.S. practice region is provided in Table 2. The df formula, df = (R − 1) (C − 1) is used. There are four “R” rows, Northeastern United States, Southern United States, Midwestern United States, and Western United States. There are two “C” columns, RAAPS users and RAAPS nonusers. df = (4 − 1)(2 − 1) = (3)(1) = 3.

8. The null hypothesis: There is no difference between RAAPS users and RAAPS nonusers for providers with ≤5 years of practice and those with >5 years of practice.