The purpose of this assessment is to recognize the value of social psychology on society throughout its history as a field. You will also analyze research for how it changes or does not change based on the time period when it was conducted.
This assessment addresses the following course outcomes:
- ? Analyze social psychological research for how the field has changed over the course of its history
- ? Assess the impact of social psychological research trends for their influence on human behavior
- ? Analyze elements of social psychological research for their influence on improving social welfare
- ? Evaluate the influence of social psychological research on society for its efficacy for social change
- ? Analyze ethical issues in social psychological research for determining appropriate strategies for use in scientific researchThe project is divided into three milestones, which will be submitted at various points throughout the course to scaffold learning and ensure quality final submissions. These milestones will be submitted in Modules Three, Five, and Seven. The final product will be submitted in Module Nine.PromptResearch in social psychology has changed a great deal in the past 100 years. An examination of modern research, as opposed to classic research, shows differences with regard to the theoretical orientation (e.g., genetics, sociocultural approach, and social learning theory), ethics, and the basic versus applied nature of the research. There are also differences between the classic and current research with regard to its influence on social behavior.The task of this assignment is to select one classic research study in social psychology from a provided list. You will then locate a modern (within the last 10 years) peer-reviewed research study in the same subject area. The article you locate will be submitted for instructor approval. You will analyze these studies for their approach to social psychology, the influence of theories, research trends of the different time periods, the influence of the research on society, and how issues of ethics and ethical strategies differ across time.
Specifically, the following critical elements must be addressed:
- Introduction: For this part of the assessment, you will:
- Briefly summarize the research question, results, and conclusions reached by the authors of each study you have chosen.
- Describe the social psychological approaches used in each of the chosen studies and justify why you believe that authors of the studies usedthese approaches.
- Analyze the studies for the theories and past research you believe were used by the authors of the studies that informed their approach.
- Analyze the approaches used by the authors in each of the chosen studies for how they do or do not demonstrate how the field of socialpsychology has changed over time. In other words, how are the approaches used by the authors in each of the chosen studies similar or different? How do they demonstrate how the field has or has not changed over the course of its history?
- Human Behavior: For this part of the assessment, you will analyze each of your chosen studies for how they might have influenced the development of human behavior in society.
- Explain how the research trends in social psychology in the different time periods of both studies may have informed the direction of the research. In other words, how did the research trends of the time influence the researchers in developing their study? Be sure to support your response with appropriate evidence.
- Assess how, once published and conveyed to the public, the results and conclusions reached by the researchers of the chosen studies may have influenced human behaviors.
- Assess how the chosen studies were or were not aligned with the established research trends of the time, and how that may have affected how they were received by the public. Be sure to support your response with appropriate evidence.
- Influence on Society: For this part of the assessment, you will evaluate the impact of the chosen studies in terms of how they have instigated social change and how they have benefited society. You should consider researching the historical context of the chosen study to support your responses.
- Analyze the chosen studies for elements of the research that you believe may have been a benefit to society at any point in time and be sure to justify your response.
- Analyze the chosen studies for elements of the research that you believe may have had a negative impact on society at any point in time and be sure to justify your response.
- Explain possible ways that the results or conclusions of the studies could be applied to everyday life in modern society.
- Evaluate the chosen studies for how they may have influenced events of social change (positively or negatively). Be sure to provide examples tosupport your response.
- Describe a personal or professional experience in which elements of social psychological research could be applied to help influence change.
- Explain how influential you believe social psychological research has been on changing behavior in society. If you believe it is not influential,explain why.
- Ethical Considerations: For this part of the assessment, you will analyze each of the chosen studies for ethical issues that might be present, and examine how the time period may have influenced the ethical strategies of the researchers.
A. Analyze each of the chosen studies for any potential ethical issues that may be present in their research design. If there are no potential ethical issues, explain why. Be sure to consider issues with research design as well as the impact of the experiment on the participants.
- Explain how well each of the studies follow the ethical guidelines of their respective time period and justify your response. In other words, how do the ethical guidelines of the time period of the study change, whether the studies should be considered ethical or unethical?
- Recommend ethically appropriate strategies that could be utilized by the studies in order to address identified ethical issues. In other words, what changes could be made to the studies in order to make them align with more modern ethical guidelines?
Expert Solution Preview
The two studies that have been chosen for this assessment are a classic research study on conformity conducted by Solomon Asch in the 1950s, and a modern research study on the bystander effect conducted by Latané and Darley in the past 10 years.
In Asch’s conformity study, participants were shown a series of lines and asked to identify which line was the same length as a target line. The participants were placed in a room with confederates who purposely gave incorrect answers. Asch found that participants conformed to the incorrect answers given by the confederates in a significant number of trials.
In the modern study on the bystander effect, Latané and Darley investigated the influence of the presence of other people on an individual’s willingness to intervene in emergency situations. Participants were either alone or in the presence of confederates during a simulated emergency situation. The study found that individuals were less likely to help when others were present compared to when they were alone.
The social psychological approaches used in Asch’s conformity study were focused on social influence and the social norms that guide behavior. Asch aimed to understand the factors that lead individuals to conform to the opinions of others, even when those opinions are clearly incorrect. He used the paradigm of group pressure to study the impact of social influence on individual behavior.
In the modern study on the bystander effect, Latané and Darley used a similar approach of studying social influence, but with a focus on the diffusion of responsibility and the influence of the presence of others. They aimed to understand why individuals are less likely to intervene in emergencies when they perceive that others are present. The study explored the social factors that inhibit helping behavior in the presence of others.
Both of these studies are influenced by past research on social influence and social norms. Asch’s conformity study built upon earlier research on conformity, such as the work of Muzafer Sherif and his autokinetic effect experiment. Latané and Darley’s study on the bystander effect was influenced by earlier research on diffusion of responsibility, such as the famous case of Kitty Genovese.
The approaches used by the authors in these studies demonstrate how the field of social psychology has evolved over time. Asch’s study focused on the individual-level factors that contribute to conformity, while Latané and Darley’s study examined the role of social situational factors in inhibiting helping behavior. This shift in focus reflects the broader shift in the field of social psychology towards understanding the influence of contextual factors on human behavior.
The research trends in social psychology during the time of Asch’s conformity study were largely focused on understanding conformity and the influence of social norms on individual behavior. Asch’s study contributed to the understanding of the power of social influence and demonstrated the extent to which individuals are willing to conform to group opinions, even when they go against their own perceptions. This study, along with others conducted during that time, shaped the direction of research by highlighting the importance of social influence in shaping human behavior.
In contrast, the research trends in social psychology during the time of Latané and Darley’s bystander effect study were focused on understanding the factors that inhibit helping behavior in emergency situations. This study was influenced by earlier research on diffusion of responsibility and the bystander effect, which demonstrated that individuals are less likely to help when others are present. The research trends of the time influenced the researchers in developing their study by emphasizing the need to understand the social factors that contribute to the bystander effect and inhibit helping behavior.
The results and conclusions reached by Asch in his conformity study had a significant impact on human behavior. The study highlighted the power of social influence, leading to increased awareness of the importance of nonconformity and critical thinking. It also raised ethical concerns about the impact of social pressure on individual decision-making.
Similarly, the results and conclusions reached by Latané and Darley in their bystander effect study had a significant impact on human behavior. The study exposed the bystander effect and increased awareness of the importance of taking personal responsibility in emergency situations. It also led to the development of interventions aimed at reducing the bystander effect, such as bystander intervention training programs.
The chosen studies were aligned with the established research trends of their respective time periods. Asch’s conformity study aligned with the focus on understanding conformity and the influence of social norms, while Latané and Darley’s bystander effect study aligned with the focus on understanding the factors that inhibit helping behavior in emergency situations. These studies were well-received by the public and contributed to a deeper understanding of social behavior.
Influence on Society:
The chosen studies have had a beneficial impact on society. Asch’s conformity study highlighted the importance of critical thinking and nonconformity, encouraging individuals to resist social pressure and make independent judgments. This study has contributed to the promotion of individuality and the encouragement of diverse perspectives.
On the other hand, Latané and Darley’s bystander effect study has had a negative impact on society. The study revealed the tendency of individuals to not intervene in emergency situations when others are present, creating awareness of the bystander effect and the diffusion of responsibility. This has led to concerns about the erosion of personal responsibility and the need for intervention to combat this societal issue.
The results and conclusions of these studies can be applied to everyday life in modern society. Asch’s study reminds individuals of the importance of independent thinking and resisting conformity, allowing them to make informed decisions without undue influence. Latané and Darley’s study emphasizes the need for personal responsibility and pro-social behavior, urging individuals to take action and help others in need.
In terms of social change, both studies have influenced events positively. Asch’s conformity study challenged the prevailing view of the time that individuals were rational decision-makers, highlighting the impact of social influence. This led to the development of interventions aimed at reducing conformity and promoting critical thinking.
Latané and Darley’s bystander effect study has also influenced events positively by raising awareness of the bystander effect and the diffusion of responsibility. This has led to the implementation of bystander intervention training programs and the promotion of individual responsibility in emergency situations.
A personal or professional experience in which elements of social psychological research could be applied to help influence change is in the context of promoting inclusivity and reducing prejudice. Research in social psychology has shown the effectiveness of intergroup contact and perspective-taking in reducing prejudice and fostering empathy. Applying these findings in real-world settings can help influence change by promoting greater understanding and acceptance among different social groups.
Overall, social psychological research has been highly influential in changing behavior in society. The studies discussed in this assessment have highlighted the power of social influence, the importance of personal responsibility, and the need for critical thinking. By uncovering the underlying mechanisms and processes that shape human behavior, social psychology has provided valuable insights that can inform interventions and policies aimed at promoting positive social change.