The American Nursing Journal

In this assignment I need a peer response for the main discussion, that show below.

The peer’s responses

Discussion Grading Criteria: Agreeing and disagreeing do not mean just voicing one’s opinion. The focus of the discussions should remain on the ideas posed in the readings. Agreeing and disagreeing mean making scholarly arguments from the literature that may support your own ideas. Faculty expects you to support your ideas from the readings or similar scholarly writing about the topic in nursing literature. Always cite your source(s) and reference in APA format.

Remember the post and responses should include scholarly writing about the topic in nursing literature.

Note por the professor:

Hello class,

Please refer to your APA format in your postings. The journal name and volume is italicized font. Ex.

The American Nursing Journal,7(9),,,,

Please update your APA to reflect doi

 

Thalia T. Ayra

On your discussion this week answer the following questions:

1) What is the U.S. Preventive Task Force (USPTF)?

The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force is an independent, volunteer panel of national experts in disease prevention and evidence-based medicine. The Task Force works to improve the health of all Americans by making evidence-based recommendations about clinical preventive services.

   2. ) Select a disease for example colon cancer and discuss the screening age recommendations and the screening tools recommended for early prevention?

Adults age ≥40 years in average-risk or unselected populations; screening populations (i.e., no symptoms) Populations selected for personal or family history of colorectal cancer (e.g., one or more first-degree relatives with colorectal cancer diagnosed before age 60 years or two or more first-degree relatives diagnosed at any age), known genetic susceptibility syndromes (e.g., Lynch Syndrome, familial adenomatous polyposis), or personal history of inflammatory bowel disease; nonscreening populations (e.g., persons who have symptoms, test positive on screening, have iron deficiency anemia, or are under surveillance for a previous colorectal lesion)

Settings       Settings representative of community practice for flexible sigmoidoscopy and colonoscopy studies; studies conducted in developed countries (categorized as “very high” on the 2017 Human Development Index, as defined by the United Nations Development Programme)       Primarily research-based settings for endoscopy studies (e.g., small studies aimed at evaluating new endoscopy technologies, studies with operator or resource characteristics that are not applicable to community practice); developing countries

Screening tests    

KQ 1: Any program of colorectal cancer screening, including endoscopy, imaging, urine, stool, or serum testing

KQs 2–3:

Direct visualization tests:

Colonoscopy

Flexible sigmoidoscopy

Computed tomography colonography

Capsule endoscopy*

Stool-based tests:

High-sensitivity guaiac fecal occult blood test

Fecal immunochemical test (quantitative and qualitative testing)

Multitarget stool DNA test (with or without fecal immunochemical testing)

Serum-based test:

Circulating methylated septin 9 gene DNA test (mSEPT9)*

Urine-based test

KQs 2, 3: New technologic enhancements to colonoscopy or computed tomography colonography; Hemoccult II (review of test performance and harms limited to include only high-sensitivity guaiac fecal occult blood test); stool testing using in-office digital rectal examination; double-contrast barium enema; magnetic resonance colonography

Comparisons       

KQ 1: No screening or alternate screening strategy

KQ 2: Diagnostic accuracy studies that use colonoscopy as a reference standard

KQ 3: No comparator necessary

Outcomes  

KQ 1: Colorectal cancer incidence (by stage and location) or interval colorectal cancer; colorectal cancer–specific or all-cause mortality

KQ 2: Test accuracy, including: sensitivity and specificity (per person for all tests and per lesion for direct visualization tests), positive and negative predictive value (per person for all tests and per lesion for direct visualization tests), and false-positive and false-negative rates for identifying colorectal cancer, advanced adenoma (high-grade dysplasia, villous histology, or size ≥10 mm), or adenomatous or sessile serrated polyps by size (i.e., ≤5 mm, 6 to 9 mm, ≥10 mm) or by location (e.g., proximal or distal colon, rectum)

KQ 3: Serious harms requiring unexpected or unwanted medical attention (e.g., requiring hospitalization) and/or resulting in death, including but not limited to perforation, major bleeding, severe abdominal symptoms, cardiovascular events; extracolonic findings, and subsequent diagnostic workup, and adverse events from diagnostic testing for incidental findings on computed tomography colonography; radiation exposure per each computed tomography colonography examination

KQ 1: Incidence of adenomas or advanced neoplasia (composite outcome of advanced adenomas and colorectal cancer)

KQ 3: Minor harms, defined as those not necessarily needing or resulting in medical attention (e.g., patient dissatisfaction, anxiety or worry, minor gastrointestinal complaints)

Study design        

All KQs: Fair- to good-quality studies

KQ 1: Randomized, controlled trials; controlled clinical trials; prospective cohort studies

KQ 2: Randomized, controlled trials; controlled clinical trials; cohort studies; nested case-control diagnostic accuracy studies; and screening registry studies

KQ 3: Randomized, controlled trials; controlled clinical trials; large screening registry or database observational studies; cohort studies; and systematically selected case series

All KQs: Poor-quality studies

KQ 1: Decision analyses†

KQ 2: Diagnostic accuracy studies without a reference standard or without representation of a full spectrum of disease (e.g., case-control studies, studies that excluded indeterminate results)

KQ 3: Case st

References

“Clinical Guidelines and Recommendations”. Agency for Healthcare Research Quality.

“U.S. Preventive Services Task Force: About USPSTF”. Agency for Healthcare Research Quality. November 2014.

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