# What are the implications of these findings for practice?

June 19, 2019
June 19, 2019

#### Relevant Study Results

“Simple linear regression was used to produce novel formulae for the prediction of the mean weight specifically for the PICU population” (Flannigan et al., 2014, p. 927). The three novel formulas are presented in Figures 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The new formulas calculations are more complex than the APLS UK formulas. “Although a good estimate of mean weight can be obtained by our newly derived formula, reliance on mean weight alone will still result in significant error as the weights of children admitted to PICU in each age and sex [gender] group have a large standard deviation . . . Therefore as soon as possible after admission a weight should be obtained, e.g., using a weight bed” (Flannigan et al., 2014, p. 929).

FIGURE 1  Comparison of actual weight with weight calculated using APLS formula “Weight in kg = (0.5 × age in months) + 4” and novel formula “Weight in kg = (0.502 × age in months) + 3.161” Flannigan, C., Bourke, T. W., Sproule, A., Stevenson, M., & Terris, M. (2014). Are APLS formulae for estimating weight appropriate for use in children admitted to PICU? Resuscitation, 85(7), p. 928.

FIGURE 2  Comparison of actual weight with weight calculated using APLS formula “Weight in kg = (2 × age in years) + 8” and novel formula “Weight in kg = (0.176 × age in months) + 7.241” Flannigan, C., Bourke, T. W., Sproule, A., Stevenson, M., & Terris, M. (2014). Are APLS formulae for estimating weight appropriate for use in children admitted to PICU? Resuscitation, 85(7), p. 928.

FIGURE 3  Comparison of actual weight with weight calculated using APLS formula “Weight in kg = (3 × age in years) + 7” and novel formula “Weight in kg = (0.331 × age in months) − 6.868” Flannigan, C., Bourke, T. W., Sproule, A., Stevenson, M., & Terris, M. (2014). Are APLS formulae for estimating weight appropriate for use in children admitted to PICU? Resuscitation, 85(7), p. 929.
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### Study Questions

1. What are the variables on the x- and y-axes in Figure 1 from the Flannigan et al. (2014) study?

2. What is the name of the type of variable represented by x and y in Figure 1? Is x or y the score to be predicted?

3. What is the purpose of simple linear regression analysis and the regression equation?

4. What is the point where the regression line meets the y-axis called? Is there more than one term for this point and what is the value of x at that point?

5. In the formula y = bx + a, is a or b the slope? What does the slope represent in regression analysis?

6. Using the values a = 3.161 and b = 0.502 with the novel formula in Figure 1, what is the predicted weight in kilograms for a child at 5 months of age? Show your calculations.

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7. What are the variables on the x-axis and the y-axis in Figures 2 and 3? Describe these variables and how they might be entered into the regression novel formulas identified in Figures 2 and 3.

8. Using the values a = 7.241 and b = 0.176 with the novel formula in Figure 2, what is the predicted weight in kilograms for a child at 4 years of age? Show your calculations.

9. Does Figure 1 have a positive or negative slope? Provide a rationale for your answer. Discuss the meaning of the slope of Figure 1.

10. According to the study narrative, why are estimated child weights important in a pediatric intensive care (PICU) setting? What are the implications of these findings for practice?