A 57-year-old woman who has been diagnosed with atrophic vaginitis has expressed her surprise to her care provider, citing a lifetime largely free of gynecological health problems. She has asked what may have contributed to her problem. How can the care provider best respond?
“The lower levels of estrogen since you’ve begun menopause make your vagina prone to infection.”
“Vaginitis is not usually the direct result of any single problem, but rather an inevitability of the vaginal dryness that accompanies menopause.”
“This type of vaginitis is most commonly a symptom of a latent sexually transmitted infection that you may have contracted in the distant past.”
“The exact cause of this problem isn’t known, but it can usually be resolved with a diet high in probiotic bacteria.”
A 29-year-old woman has been trying for many months to become pregnant, and fertilization has just occurred following her most recent ovulation. What process will now occur that will differentiate this ovulatory cycle from those prior?
Human chorionic gonadotropin will be produced, preventing luteal regression.
The remaining primary follicles will provide hormonal support for the first 3 months of pregnancy.
The corpus luteum will atrophy and be replaced by corpus albicans.
The basal layer of the endometrium will be sloughed in preparation for implantation.
A 20-year-old male has been diagnosed with a chlamydial infection, and his primary care provider is performing teaching in an effort to prevent the patient from infecting others in the future. Which of the following statements by the patient demonstrates the best understanding of his health problem?
“Either me or a partner could end up with an eye infection from chlamydia that could make us blind.”
“Even though I couldn’t end up sterile, a woman that I give it to certainly could.”
“Each of the three stages of the disease seems to be worse than the previous one.”
“Even if I spread it to someone else, there’s a good chance she won’t have any symptoms or know she has it.”
A 40-year-old male patient with multiple health problems has been diagnosed with a testosterone deficiency. Which of the following assessment findings would his care provider attribute to an etiology other than this deficiency?
The patient has a voice that is unusually high in pitch.
The patient has long-standing anemia and low red cell counts.
The patient has a history of susceptibility to upper respiratory infections.
The patient has a low muscle mass as a proportion of total body weight.
A 66-year-old man has presented to a nurse practitioner to get a refill for his antiplatelet medication. The patient has a history of ischemic heart disease and suffered a myocardial infarction 5 years ago and has unstable angina; he uses a transdermal nitroglycerin patch to control his angina. The patient has a 40-pack-year smoking history and uses nebulized bronchodilators at home for the treatment of transient shortness of breath. He has long-standing hypertension that is treated with a potassium-sparing diuretic and a ß-adrenergic blocking medication. During the nurse’s assessment, the man notes that he has been unable to maintain his erection in recent months. Which of the following aspects of the man’s health problems and treatments would the nurse identify as NOT being contributing to his erectile dysfunction (ED)?
His antihypertensive medications
His use of bronchodilators
His ischemic heart disease
His smoking history
Which of the following statements best captures an aspect of normal spermatogenesis?
Testosterone chemically lyses each primary spermatocyte into two secondary spermatocytes with 23 chromosomes each.
Sertoli cells differentiate into spermatids, each of which can contribute half of the chromosomes necessary for reproduction.
Spermatogonia adjacent to the tubular wall undergo meiotic division and provide a continuous source of new germinal cells.
Each primary spermatocyte undergoes two nuclear divisions, yielding four cells with 23 chromosomes each.
A 39-year-old male patient has been recently diagnosed with primary hypogonadism. Which of the following lab results would be most indicative of this diagnosis?
Normal levels of free testosterone; low levels of total testosterone
Low free testosterone, LH, and FSH levels
Low levels of GnRH
Low testosterone levels; normal levels of LH and FSH