Be on schedule.Score better.


Our Services

Get 15% Discount on your First Order

William C Overfelt High School Cardiovascular and Respiratory Systems Discussion Nursing Assignment Help

Discuss and answer the following aspects of medication, drugs, and medication administration:

Describe the electrical pathway of the heart.

Discuss at least three risk factors for developing heart disease.

  1. Explain why essential hypertension is called a “silent killer”.
  2. Discuss the physiology of the respiratory system.
  3. Explain the process of ventilation. Be specific!

Expert Solution Preview

In this response, we will discuss several aspects related to medication, drugs, and medication administration. We will explore the electrical pathway of the heart, identify three risk factors for developing heart disease, explain why essential hypertension is known as a “silent killer,” delve into the physiology of the respiratory system, and provide a specific explanation of the ventilation process.


1. Electrical Pathway of the Heart:
The electrical pathway of the heart is responsible for coordinating the heartbeat and ensuring the proper contraction of the cardiac muscles. This pathway begins in the sinoatrial (SA) node, often referred to as the natural pacemaker of the heart. The SA node is located in the right atrium and initiates each heartbeat by generating electrical impulses.

From the SA node, the electrical impulses travel to the atrioventricular (AV) node, which is found at the junction between the atria and ventricles. The AV node acts as a gatekeeper, briefly delaying the impulses to allow the atria to contract fully before the ventricles receive the signal.

After passing through the AV node, the impulses enter the bundle of His and then divide into the left and right bundle branches. These branches further subdivide into Purkinje fibers, which spread the electrical impulses throughout the ventricles, causing them to contract and pump blood out of the heart. This coordinated sequence of electrical events ensures efficient pumping and circulation.

2. Risk Factors for Developing Heart Disease:
Several risk factors contribute to the development of heart disease. Three common and significant risk factors include:

a) High blood pressure (hypertension): Elevated blood pressure increases the workload on the heart and blood vessels. Over time, it can lead to the development of heart disease, heart failure, or stroke.

b) High cholesterol levels: An excessive amount of cholesterol, particularly LDL (“bad”) cholesterol, can accumulate in the arteries, forming plaques that narrow the blood vessels. This condition, known as atherosclerosis, restricts blood flow to the heart and increases the risk of heart disease.

c) Smoking: Tobacco smoke contains harmful chemicals that damage the blood vessels, promote the development of atherosclerosis, and increase the risk of heart disease. Smoking also reduces the amount of oxygen in the blood, putting additional strain on the heart.

3. Essential Hypertension as a “Silent Killer”:
Essential hypertension, also known as primary or idiopathic hypertension, is often referred to as a “silent killer” due to its asymptomatic nature. This condition typically presents no noticeable symptoms, yet it gradually damages the blood vessels and organs, particularly the heart, brain, and kidneys.

The absence of overt symptoms makes essential hypertension dangerous because it can remain undiagnosed and untreated for prolonged periods. Without intervention, the sustained high blood pressure can lead to severe complications such as heart attacks, strokes, kidney failure, and other cardiovascular diseases.

4. Physiology of the Respiratory System:
The respiratory system facilitates the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the body and the environment. It comprises the upper respiratory tract (nose, nasal cavity, pharynx) and the lower respiratory tract (larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, lungs). The alveoli within the lungs are the primary sites of gas exchange.

5. Process of Ventilation:
Ventilation refers to the movement of air into and out of the lungs. It involves two distinct but interrelated processes: inspiration and expiration.

During inspiration, the diaphragm, a dome-shaped muscle at the base of the lungs, contracts and moves downward. Simultaneously, the external intercostal muscles between the ribs contract, causing them to lift and expand the chest cavity. These actions increase the volume of the thoracic cavity, leading to a decrease in intra-alveolar pressure. Consequently, air flows into the lungs, driven by the pressure difference between atmospheric air and the lungs.

In expiration, the diaphragm and external intercostal muscles relax. This results in a decrease in thoracic cavity volume, causing an increase in intra-alveolar pressure. As a result, air is expelled from the lungs, moving back to the lower-pressure environment outside the body.

Overall, the process of ventilation relies on the coordinated contraction and relaxation of respiratory muscles to ensure a continuous flow of oxygen into the lungs and the removal of carbon dioxide from the body.

Share This Post


Order a Similar Paper and get 15% Discount on your First Order

Related Questions

Trevino, A. J. (2021). Investigating Social Problems.

Trevino, A. J. (2021). Investigating Social Problems. Available from: VitalSourceBookshelf, (3rd Edition). SAGE Publications, Inc  This is the book Please respond to the following prompt. Grammar and spelling count. Draw upon the textbook and lecture notes in your response. What troubling social condition are you most concerned with (that may

Overview In this module, you learned how to monitor key

Overview In this module, you learned how to monitor key performance indicators (KPIs) and boost revenue-cycle management in healthcare organizations. You also explored how data analytics can be leveraged to maintain a robust revenue cycle. In this assignment, you will determine how KPIs support the strategic planning and financial performance

As a new division manager in a health care organization, you

As a new division manager in a health care organization, you have been given an opportunity to attend a lobbying workshop in Washington, D.C. Before attending the workshop, you must research current health care legislation. In preparation, it is important that you use your influencing skills and demonstrate an understanding of the health care policy

Assignment 1: Understanding the Canadian Healthcare System

Assignment 1: Understanding the Canadian Healthcare System Objective: The primary objective of this assignment is to conduct thorough research on the   structure and components of the Canadian healthcare system. Students are expected to gain   insights into its organization, funding mechanisms, and key challenges and achievements, with a  

Recommend one FDA-approved drug, one off-label drug, and one

Recommend one FDA-approved drug, one off-label drug, and one nonpharmacological intervention for treating neuro cognitive disorder in pregnant women. Explain the risk assessment you would use to inform your treatment decision  making. What are the risks and benefits of the FDA-approved medicine? What are the risks and benefits of the

design a method of communicating age appropriate screening

The purpose of this Assignment is for you to design a method of communicating age appropriate screening guidelines to the appropriate population. This can either be a trifold brochure or a 10 slide PowerPoint presentation. Directions 1. Select a screening test and the age appropriate population at risk. 2. Introduce