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YENROSE DISCUSSION REPLIES:Akillah Turner May 27, 2024, 12:32 AMUnread Hello Everyone, Happy Monday and happy new week.

YENROSE DISCUSSION REPLIES:

Akillah Turner

May 27, 2024, 12:32 AM

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Hello Everyone,

Happy Monday and happy new week. Shake off any bad vibes from last week and start a fresh. I hope everyone had a great and stress-free weekend. There are three different kinds of claims: causal, association, and frequency (Andrade, 2018). Construct and external validities are most important for frequency claims because they guarantee precise measurement and generalizability. Construct and statistical validity are given priority in association claims to verify precise measurement as well as the degree and importance of relationships. To prove causation, causal claims emphasize construct and statistical validity in addition to internal validity, which guarantees precise measurement and strong relationships (Andrade, 2018). Carlson and Morrison (2009) state that “Because each validity type frequently usually requires different study designs and methodologies, resulting in trade-offs, researchers do not attempt to achieve all four validities simultaneously”. The study’s accuracy and applicability are maximized within realistic constraints by prioritizing pertinent validities based on the research question.

 

Positive Energy,

A’killah T.

 

References

Andrade, C. (2018). Internal, external, and ecological validity in research design, conduct, and evaluation. Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine, 40(5), 498–499.

Carlson, M. D., & Morrison, R. S. (2009). Study design, precision, and validity in observational studies. Journal of Palliative Medicine, 12(1), 77–82.

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Monique Pena

May 27, 2024, 9:57 AM

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In research, there are three main types of claims: frequency, which is how often something happens; association, which is how two things are related; and causal, which is when one thing causes another. There are also four main types of validity: construct, which checks if we are measuring what we think we are; internal, which looks at cause-and-effect relationships; external, which considers how we can apply the results to other situations; and statistical, which checks if the results are accurate. Researchers usually don’t try to achieve all four validities at once because it’s difficult and they sometimes conflict. Instead, they focus on the validities that are most important for their specific study.

Alison Miller

May 27, 2024, 11:20 AM

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The three types of claims are frequency, association, and casual claims. Frequency claims details a distinct rate or degree of a single varible (Morling, 2020). Association claims disputes one level of variable that is related to another level of variable. This means if one varibale changes the other varibale tends to change as well. Similary, casual claims argues that one variable is responsible for chagning the other variable (Morling, 2020). Moreover, the four validities include contruct, external, statistical, and internal validity. Constuct validity tells how well variables are meaused or manipulated in a study (Morling, 2020). External validity represents the results of a generalized study related to people or context. Statisical validity represents how well the numbers contribute to the claim; are the conculsions precise, resonable, and replicable. Internal validity is a study capablities to remove other possiblities for changes made in variables. In addition, the validities that are most relevant for each of the three claims are construct, external, and statisical validity for frequency and association claims, and internal validity for casual claims. Finally, researchers do not aim to achieve all four of the big validities at once because it is impossible to satisfy all four validities at once in a study (Morling, 2020).

 

Morling, B. (2020). 
Research methods in psychology: Evaluating a world of information (4th ed.). Norton Publishing. ISBN-13: 9780393893724. 

Research Methods in Psychology (wwnorton.com)
 

Akillah Turner

May 27, 2024, 11:55 AM

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Hello Everyone,

Happy Monday!!!!!!! A conceptual variable is an idea that is abstract and is studied by researchers; on the other hand, an operational definition describes the practical means by which this idea will be measured or manipulated (Andrade, 2021). Examples of conceptual variables include things like depression, strength, athleticism, and workplace performance (Bobbitt, 2021).

 

· Time spent together, the frequency of physical touch, and words of love can all be used to operationalize affection (Andrade, 2021).

· Academic achievement, problem-solving exercises, and test scores can all be used to operationalize intelligence (Andrade, 2021).

· Physiological markers such as self-reported anxiety scales and behavioral symptoms like restlessness can be used to quantify stress (Andrade, 2021).

 

Positive Energy,

A’killah T.

 

References

 Andrade, C. (2021). A Student’s Guide to the classification and Operationalization of variables in the conceptualization and design of a clinical Study: Part 1. Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine, 43(2), 177–179. 


Bobbitt, Z. (2021, September 13). What is a Conceptual Variable? (Definition & Examples). Statology. 


Matthew White

May 27, 2024, 11:58 AM

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Understanding the difference between conceptual variables and their operational definitions is crucial in research. Conceptual variables are abstract ideas, such as “affection,” “intelligence,” or “stress,” while operational definitions specify how these variables will be measured or observed in a study.

To operationalize the conceptual variables “affection,” “intelligence,” and “stress,” researchers could use specific indicators. For “affection,” behaviors like hugs, kisses, or verbal expressions of love could be used. “Intelligence” could be operationalized using standardized IQ tests or academic performance measures, while “stress” could be measured through physiological responses like heart rate and cortisol levels, or through self-report questionnaires to assess perceived stress levels.

In essence, the conceptual variable provides the theoretical foundation, while the operational definition outlines the practical methods for studying and understanding these concepts in a research context.

Monique Pena

May 27, 2024, 3:48 PM

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Hello Class,

 

The difference between a conceptual variable and an operational definition is about how abstract or specific they are. A conceptual variable is the big idea a researcher wants to study, like “affection,” “intelligence,” or “stress.” The operational definition is how the researcher will measure or observe that big idea in real life. For example, to measure “affection,” they might count how often people hug or say “I love you.” To measure “intelligence,” they might use IQ tests or school grades. To measure “stress,” they might check things like heart rate or ask people how stressed they feel. By defining these big ideas in specific ways, researchers can study them more easily and consistently.

ALBERTO’S DISCUSSION REPLIES:

Alyssa Rhule

May 27, 2024, 12:03 AM

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The main components of persuasive messages are as follows: Gain attention, raise a need, deliver a need, provide a rationale, validate the views preference and concerns, give counterpoints and call to action. When you gain attention of your readers it can be done in different ways such as asking rhetorical questions, giving the audience an interesting fact as an attention grabber. The need for solution and rationale is to maintain the need and purpose to the reader. Validation allows readers to know that you are paying attention to their wants, needs and ideas. Counterpoint is a way to overcome objections. Lastly, action is about asking the reader or readers to move forward with the ideas you gave or a certain product you are attempting to get them to purchase. All of these come together to form one successful persuasive message. These steps are essential for any leader or business person to know.

 

Cardon, P, Floyd, K., and Palmer, I. (2023). Managing business communications and change with Connect. McGraw Hill. ISBN: 1264833

Honey Garcia

May 27, 2024, 7:04 PM

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Hello Professor Some and Class,

 

The seven Key components of a persuasive message and explanation of each are as follows:

1. Gain attention: This is the first part of the message that grabs the attention of the audience. It can be a startling fact, a provocative statement, or a question that encourages the audience to think.

2. Raise Need: The message must be relevant to the audience’s interests, needs, or goals. This helps to establish a connection with the audience and makes them more receptive to the message.

3. Deliver a solution:  Identify the need and communicate a solution to address the problem

4. Provide Rationale: This explains why the communicated solution is the best or most appropriate for the situation.

5. Validate the views, preferences, and concerns of others: Here the communicator acknowledges and respects the audience’s views and perspective, making the message persuasive.

6. Give counterparts (optional): Addressing potential objections or counterarguments to strengthen the message for persuasion can at times be beneficial.

7. Call to action: This is the last step where the communicator urges the audience to act based on the information provided and the solution.

 

Establishing credibility, understanding the audience’s interests, and thoroughly analyzing the benefits, drawbacks, and competition are crucial steps in developing persuasive messages when the audience is resistant to the message (Cardon, et al., 2023). 

 

Honey Garcia 

 

Reference: 

Cardon, P, Floyd, K., and Palmer, I. (2023). Managing business communications and change with Connect. McGraw Hill. ISBN: 1264833  

 

Annastasia Ellies

May 27, 2024, 7:24 PM

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The seven key components of a persuasive message are: 

1. Gaining Attention: It is the first part of the message that grabs the attention of the audience. Typically it can be startling, or thought-provoking to make the audience think about the message that will be expanded upon.

2: Raise a Need: The message will need to be relevant to the audience’s interests, needs, or goals and it will help create a connection with the reader that can make them more receptive to the message that is being delivered.

3: Delivering a solution: This shows that you are actively thinking about the message you delivered and how you would change the circumstance.

4: Providing Rationale: The explanation of why your proposed solution would be the ideal one to go with. 

5: Validating the views, preferences, and concerns of others: It shows that you can respect other viewpoints, and yours would still be the most ideal, which can cause the reader to be persuaded.

6: Giving Counterpoints: This acknowledges that you as the message deliverer have thought about not just your way, but other ways to communicate or solve the problem.

7: Call to action: This is calling the reader to put the thoughts that you stirred up into motion and to act upon the solutions given.

 

Cardon, P, Floyd, K., and Palmer, I. (2023). Managing business communications and change with Connect. McGraw Hill. ISBN: 1264833

REPLY

HG

Honey Garcia

May 27, 2024, 7:42 PM

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Hello Professor Somne and Class,

 

The key elements of the ADKAR model include the following:

Awareness of the need for change
These factors, encompass diverse perspectives on the current situation, the trustworthiness of messengers advocating for change, the potential spread of misinformation, and the possibility of debate surrounding the reasons for change, all contribute to how people perceive and react to change (Cardon, et al., 2023).

Desire to support & participate in change: The key factors here influence how people react to change. It considers the type of change, how people see the situation surrounding it, individual circumstances and what motivates them internally (Cardon, et al., 2023).

Knowledge of how to change: Learning new things depends on both individual factors, like existing knowledge and learning ability, and external factors, like access to quality training and information. When these factors align, individuals are well-equipped to expand their knowledge base (Cardon, et al., 2023).

Ability to apply new skills and behaviors:
 Success depends on overcoming mental barriers, possessing physical and intellectual capacity, having sufficient time, and accessing necessary resources for skill development (Cardon, et al., 2023).

Reinforcement to sustain the change
: To create lasting positive change, it must be personally meaningful, tied to visible progress, free of downsides, and supported by an accountability system that reinforces the new behavior (Cardon, et al., 2023).

 

The ADKAR model recognizes that organizational change happens one person at a time, so change managers should tailor their approach to address everyone’s needs and motivations through the change process (Cardon, et al., 2023).

 

Ways this model can best be utilized to complete successful change within an organization is by focusing on the individual-level factors throughout the change process, the change manager can increase the likelihood of a successful and sustainable change within the organization. This approach helps to build buy-in, overcome resistance, and ensure that the change is effectively implemented and adopted by the affected individuals. By using this model organizations can increase the likelihood of successful change implementation by addressing individual-level factors, while also considering the broader organizational context and the need for a sustained change. 

 

This model is well-suited for organizational changes focusing on individual-level factors, such as process or workflow changes, organizational restructuring, cultural transformations, leadership and management changes, and learning and development initiatives. 

 

Honey Garcia 

 

Reference: 

Cardon, P, Floyd, K., and Palmer, I. (2023). Managing business communications and change with Connect. McGraw Hill. ISBN: 1264833

Topic 8 DQ 2

May 27-31, 2024

Explain the key components of the ADKAR model. How can this model be best utilized to complete a successful change within an organization? Identify types of organizational changes that are best suited for this model of change.

Submitted on:

May 29, 2024, 7:30 AM

VIEW DQ RESPONSE

AR

Alyssa Rhule

May 29, 2024, 10:35 AM

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ADKAR – A business model for change. ADKAR stands for awareness, desire, knowledge, ability and reinforcement. This change model gets people prepared for change and helps them with changes that may have already occurred. 

 

Awareness- first there must be the awareness that a change is needed.

Desire– There must be desire to change and people who will help to support and help the change be successful.

Knowledge– There must be knowledge on how to change and implement the change. 

Ability– There has to be the ability to make the changes not only occur but work well for the company.

Reinforcement– There must be people to back up this change and continue to make it work and reinforce the changes within to make the transition smooth and successful. 

 

Any company that is looking for change on an organizational level, cultural level or even technological level would benefit from this model. 

 

Cardon, P, Floyd, K., and Palmer, I. (2023). Managing business communications and change with Connect. McGraw Hill. ISBN: 1264833

 

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CC

Carlos Carvajal Estiu

May 29, 2024, 7:30 AM

Submitted

There are five fundamental elements of the ADKAR model. First is awareness which involves explaining to people that they need to change and the consequences associated with failing to do so. Another is desire which mainly centres on creating the enthusiasm required to enhance change through dealing with motivation and conformity. An additional element is knowledge, which offers training, education and necessary tools to learn how to introduce this change. The other component, ability, involves providing individuals with skills and behaviour required to implement change and comprises of practising, coaching and mentoring. Reinforcement is the last element and it seeks to ensure that change is maintenance over time since cultural and structural factors may compel some people to default. To successfully implement change using ADKAR model, organizations should inform people of the change needed, respond to issues and skepticism around the change, ensure people are well-informed through training and support, and routinely remind people of what is expected of them. The ADKAR model is most useful in change management programs like the integration of new technology system, new procedure or culture change within the organization (Ali et al., 2021).

 

References

Ali, M. A., Zafar, U., Mahmood, A., & Nazim, M. (2021). The power of ADKAR change model in innovative technology acceptance under the moderating effect of culture and open innovation. LogForum, 17(4). 


 

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Annastasia Ellies

replied toCarlos Carvajal Estiu

May 29, 2024, 12:41 PM

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Great post Carlos! You broke down each segment into an easy-to-read post and you have a great grasp on what the ADKAR model is. I like how to mentioned to successfully implement the ADKAR model, you need to inform people of change needed for the betterment of the company. Having the company be responsive to all employees and have them feel they are heard if they disagree with the changes being made can be beneficial as employees like companies that can take criticism and acknowledge different perspectives from employees. 

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Jeremy Lane

replied toCarlos Carvajal Estiu

May 29, 2024, 3:54 PM

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Hi Carlos, 

 

Nice job breaking it all down, have you been involved with this process before?  I have been a part of big changes in the military, and sometimes the change is better received than other times.  The rollout can be challenging, and the ADKAR doesn’t seem like it was used.  The changes come out, and we all get on board (ideally), but there are always some people who take a little bit more urging than others.

 

Jeremy

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AE

Annastasia Ellies

May 28, 2024, 7:01 PM(edited)

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The ADKAR model was developed by the consulting company Prosci. The acronym is based on five elements:

Awareness: of the need for change; Individual views of the current state and problems.

Desire: to support and participate in change; The nature and impacts of the change.

Knowledge: of how to change; The individual’s knowledge base.

Ability: to apply new skills and behaviors; Psychological blocks and physical capabilities.

Reinforcement: to sustain the change; Meaningful and specific to the person affected. (Palmer, et al., 2023, pg.316)

 

ADKAR is used to identify areas that a company could improve on and to help the change manager come up with strategies to help the company diagnose and plan changes to be made.

 

Cardon, P, Floyd, K., and Palmer, I. (2023). Managing business communications and change with Connect. McGraw Hill. ISBN: 1264833

Alyssa Rhule

May 29, 2024, 10:35 AM

Unread

ADKAR – A business model for change. ADKAR stands for awareness, desire, knowledge, ability and reinforcement. This change model gets people prepared for change and helps them with changes that may have already occurred. 

 

Awareness- first there must be the awareness that a change is needed.

Desire– There must be desire to change and people who will help to support and help the change be successful.

Knowledge– There must be knowledge on how to change and implement the change. 

Ability– There has to be the ability to make the changes not only occur but work well for the company.

Reinforcement– There must be people to back up this change and continue to make it work and reinforce the changes within to make the transition smooth and successful. 

 

Any company that is looking for change on an organizational level, cultural level or even technological level would benefit from this model. 

 

Cardon, P, Floyd, K., and Palmer, I. (2023). Managing business communications and change with Connect. McGraw Hill. ISBN: 1264833

 

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